Incidents Types


This incidents types list is a synthesis of syntheses of several national overall practice incidents databases, running over several decades. Some sources have been lost, however the synthesis remains. Sorting the categories and especially the solution proposals is subjective (R. Caux). The list is of course open. Fly safe.



lack of experience
start of season
fear, carelessness, complacency
personal worries, feeling “beside”
nervous, anger, “testosterone”
distraction (camcorder…), speeding up
forgetting legloops
run stop in tandem launch
student without guidance
risk taking with weather, aerology
unavailability, overload, panic
learn human factor
learn human factor
give up
close legloops 1st
improve pedagogy
improve pedagogy
learn human factor
tuned equipment, simplified pedagogy, training


lack of sleeping, tiredness, jetlag
bad physical shape
alcohol, cannabis
need to pee
visual flaw (midair path)
white dots on retina
wounds on ground
scubadiving less than 12h before flight
centrifugated, no reserve opening
fly down, oxygen set
drink, camelback
weather check, gloves, cothes
sunglasses, sunscreen, clothes, drink
give up
give up
give up
learn technique
red tape, FLARM
good sunglasses
(fitness) training
give up
learn Gs dangers, G-trainer, drogue chute


forgetting legloops, waist strap
impossible wanted reserve opening
unwanted reserve opening
separation upon reserve opening
legs injuries
spine injuries
EN 1651, Safe-T-Bar, legloops-shoulder straps links
direct pod handle reached by both hands or
2 reserves
faired & fitted pod handle
bridle connected to harness safety frame
ballast suited to pilot
deployable airbag


face wounds by glasses
losing helmet
“neck breaker” faired helmet
brain rotational wounds
snagging cord on launch or glider
difficult reserve opening
pilot chute break
difficult pod opening
pod opened before throwing
reserve burst in terminal velocity opening
injuries upon landing under reserve
glasses with round rim
tested geometry, strong chin strap
minimal fairing behind helmet
MIPS helmet technology
tethers only by cow hitches or quick links,
inner radio wire, no external strings
pilot chute on pod
freefall tested pilot chute
bungees regularly changed (prevent hardening)
protected closing loop, lines stowed on pod
EN 12491, freefall tested sail
size suited to gross weight


loss of control during launch, dragged
collapses, low AoA, cravats
cutting or fatigue line break
spiral stability
sand in sail
easy sail behaviour, Rose system
max speed limitation, more lines in
upper front pyramid?
proper size lines
design, drogue chute
regular check after coastal flight


protruding nail on ramp
steep launch on winch tow, stall upon line break
face injuries upon line break
impossible release upon lockout
midair with winch tow line
obstacles on landing
injuries upon jumping in water
drowning upon water landing
restricted tension below 50m, operator’s training
simple, light & compact release
no cord loops imitating metal rings
winch tow activity on airmaps
cut fences, trees
wait touching water before opening buckles
floating harness, 1. brake sail 2. open harness


spinaker effect, poor sail rising control
launch with line mix, low AoA, gust
passenger/pilot hindrance upon launch
blown launch, lockout on tow
hitting the ridge
collapse, surge, stall, parachutal, spin
unwanted reserve opening
pilot wrapped up in sail
high wind
poor approach, low turn
gradient, collapse due to obstacles
obstacles on landing
no braking
improve briefing
anticipate, active control, “hands free” release
crabb towards the valley
training, SIV
learn rules, continuous 360° watch, anticipate
equipment preparation
read on aerobatics & risk management
improve wind analysis & anticipate
long straight final
judge & anticipate
anticipate, watch free zone
pedagogy, training


overcrowded start gate
lost pilots
hazardous task line/final glide
overcrowded landing
adapt lapse between launch opening & 1st start:
1 to 2h
continuous 360° watch, FLARM
reduce speed by task design
mobile phone on, live tracker, SPOT
flight corridor over landable & in aerologically
sound zones
daily turn direction for landing


mental training: visualise problems & emergency procedures
aware of consequences (aviation’s hardest = ground)
aware of own (changing) limits: adrenalin, visual flaws, no cheating
fit & awake
ability to renounce: maturity
use logic more than lists learned by heart
simplify procedures to lower work load
anticipate worsening situation, have an alternate
rely on anticipation more than luck
safety scale (green: fly, yellow: watch ground, red: land)
anticipate human mistake, humbleness, listen to critics
step in upon hazard or incompetence
declare incidents for common knowledge
putting stress on little mistakes (almost accident)